Odd Behavior in Canada geese

The photographs above were taken at American Lake on Fort Lewis, WA.

Living in the Northwest these large birds are just about impossible to miss. In many places it is also nearly impossible not to come into contact with the aftermath of their grassy diet, I certainly have, and I’ll bet there are quite a few golfers out there who can attest (and detest) to this experience also. I believe this is especially true around Salem, Oregon where I have seen flocks numbering in the hundreds, more than I’ve seen anywhere. Messy aftermath aside I have become quite fond of these birds. Their energy and raucous interactions are very interesting to watch and you can normally get quite close to them as well. Because of this and due to the fact that they are such a common sight much has been written about their behavior. Yet despite all that I have read about these beautiful birds I have noticed two peculiar habits not described elsewhere, and one of these behaviors is something I have not seen in any other bird. Watch a flock of Canada Geese on land for a period of time and you are sure to see the one legged stance. Sure, a number of other birds exhibit this posture so it is not too much of a peculiar thing. But spend some time observing Canada Geese in the water and you just might see something that is very peculiar – they flip themselves completely upside down – the only bird I know of that does this. Normally you see the geese swimming about in relative peace but sometimes I see small groups of them engaged in what I can only describe as vigorous bathing. At first all seems normal, then you notice one or two of them begin to furiously flap their wings and splash water all over the place. Immediately after one of the animals dips its head into the water and heaves itself completely over to the point where its flippered feet are sticking out of the water and pointing upward. Perhaps it is some kind of aggressive demonstration or something; I do not know. But the geese never appear to be facing a rival during these episodes and after seeing this behavior numerous times it looks very much as though the birds are trying to thoroughly wash themselves off. The flock does not all do it at once, only one or two of the birds go through this ritual at a time, and the energetic wing splashing does not always result in the upside down display. But every time I have seen the wing splashing sooner or later the birds are flopping upside down, and eventually they all seem to take turns doing it. Perhaps some bird expert out there can provide some insights on this.

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Elk Show! Dosewallips State Park

We counted 24 elk in this herd, the largest I’ve seen in some time, and quite comfortable with human and vehicle presence. Although he was not an exceptionally example of his species, the antlered fellow in the photo was the only one sporting antlers and appeared to be El Hefe of this group. The two closeups are examples of his very extended, very beautiful, family.

North of Olympia along highway 101 sits a beautiful, uniquely named state park. Dosewallips State Park, named for its proximity to the Dosewallips River, encompasses over a thousand acres and boasts long shoreline trails along the river and the Hood Canal. Camping sites abound as well. The marine waters of the Hood Canal dominate the scenery yet, from time to time, like this Columbus Day weekend, elk herds steal the show.

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REPTILIAN REPRODUCTION MINUS THE MALE

Although the photograph does not accurately show the color difference between the snakes, it was very visible to my eye. The photo of the harvest ant herding its flock of aphids is a tribute to Swiss naturalist Charles Bonnet.

I recently discovered a pair of beautiful new born garter snakes in my backyard. Hardly big news but the sight of little things triggered my curiosity as usual. Based on their size and location I assumed they were from the same litter but each possessed a distinctly different color as is evident in the above photos. I took them in for a couple of weeks to see if their individual colors would progress or revert to something similar. The colors remained different on each snake so I let them go in the same location I had discovered them in. Garter snakes, especially our Northwest species, come in a variety of beautiful colors and this pair reinforced that fact. As I pondered the delicate beauty of the tiny serpents I was also watching one of the Great Courses I’d ordered from National Geographic, “Zoology, Understanding the Animal World.” If, like me, it has been many years since you formally studied the subject this is a great refresher to bring you up to date. The section of the course that deals with reptiles mentioned parthenogenesis. The lecturer, Donald E. Moore, had covered this topic earlier but in this section of the course he interviews Lauren Augustine, curator of reptiles at the Smithsonian National Zoo Reptile House. MS Augustine and Dr. Moore discuss a female Asian Water Dragon that has been in captivity without any other lizards male or female for the past eight years. Recently, and very unexpectedly, this lizard laid several eggs which are developing normally. This triggered my memory of several other reports about parthenogenesis in reptiles that have recently made news. So I went online and looked around. With very little effort here are a few of my findings about reptiles giving birth without fertilization:

From Reptile Report (ReptileReport.com):

  • Crested Gecko 2013

  • Albino Python 2012

From Reptiles Magazine (ReptilesMagazine.com)

  • New Caledonian Giant Gecko 2009

  • Copperhead snake 1998

From Live Science (LiveScience.com):

  • Yellow Bellied Water Snake 2015 – the second time in 2 years!

From Encyclopedia Britannica (Britannica.com):

I discovered that the study of parthenogenesis is not new by a long shot. It was first described in the 1700s by a Swiss lawyer named Charles Bonnet (1720-1793). Although he was a lawyer Charles had a passion for natural science. He discovered and described the birth and development of unfertilized eggs while studying aphids and ants. Shows what you can do with a hobby! This work was further carried on by a German biologist, Jacques Loeb, (1859-1924) who actually provoked parthenogenesis by manipulating environmental conditions. Loeb began working with unfertilized sea urchin eggs and then went on to work with frogs. His studies shed much light on the process and initiation of cell division.

I am sure there are many more examples of parthenogenesis in reptiles and other vertebrate species as well so I will be following up this post with more research on the topic.

Please send comments or critiques to reganjm@northwestwildlifeonline.com

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Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center

A few examples of the scenes awaiting visitors at the Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center. You might see a black bear swaying back and forth high up in a tree, a herd of bull elk with antlers pointing to the sky preparing for the rut, the giant northern wood bison, a very relaxed brown bear surrounded by ravens.

About an hour south of Anchorage along the Seward Highway the Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center is a worthy destination. From porcupines to musk ox the Conservation Center has it all; a complete resume of the most famous Alaskan animals this non-profit organization is focused on preserving. Even the drive to the center is fine outing for wildlife lovers. As you begin your trip along the beautifully scenic Seward highway you may want to stop by and stroll the boardwalk around the Potter Marsh, a bird lovers paradise. A few miles further on check for signs pointing to the Alaska Zoo. This great zoological park is just two miles off the highway and you will be treated to close up views of many smaller examples of Alaskan wildlife as well as some other exotic cold weather species. As your journey continues you just may be one of the lucky few (I was one of them) treated to the sight of Beluga Whales in the Cook Inlet. Pull over into Beluga Point and take a look. And keep a look out to the mountains of the Kenai Peninsula for the lovely Dall sheep that make these mountains their home. I guarantee that you will be so distracted by the splendid scenery you will arrive at the Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center before you know it. Alaskan weather is always a concern, of course, but you can take your pick of driving or walking through this sprawling beautiful park. From the youngest to the oldest in the family a fine time is in store. Whichever you choose be prepared for some extraordinary scenes such as the ones I photographed. One word of caution – be sure to check the hours that the park is open. Because of the previously mentioned Alaska weather the center has varying hours for almost every month of the year.

Frogs of Ankeny Wildlife Refuge

Counter intuitive as it seems mid summer is the time to observe an astounding number of frogs, at least in one particular area of the country. The Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge outside of Salem, Oregon is for most of the year a marshy wetland overflowing with water. Our annual hot and dry Northwest summers, however, shrink this down to an alarming degree. But there is a distinct advantage to this dryness (for us). The refuge is home to a gigantic population of beautiful red legged frogs. The frogs are visible during the wet season of course, but the diminishing marshes of summer concentrate these amphibians to an amazing degree. Even with temperatures in the upper nineties I was able to see and photograph thousands of them. In fact, it was actually easier than in wetter times as the excessive heat seemed to wear the little guys down somewhat. As you can see from the photo above, though, there are definite disadvantages for them.

Northwest Wildlife – Insect Update July 23, 2018 – June Beetles

Pictured above is our Ten Lined June Beetle, named for the obvious markings on its elytra wing coverings. Pull those back and the wings underneath are revealed. Another of the Ten Lined June Beetle’s most notable characteristics are the relatively enormous, flopping looking antenna sprouting out from their heads. The larvae in the above photo was found in a rotted tree in a forest in Arkansas.

NOTE TO PHOTO THIEVES – ALL PICTURES ON THIS SITE ARE COPY WRITED BY THE AUTHOR

June Beetles are one of the most conspicuous insects in our area. These extraordinary animals, true to their nickname, show up in our region and throughout the North America right around June and July, but they are also referred to as May Beetles in some areas – I’ll bet you can guess why (these are a distinctively different color by the way). Here in the Northwest we have a species called the Ten-lined June Beetle due to the distinctive number of white lines on its back. According to Arthur Evans Field guide to Insects and Spiders of North America our June Beetle has been observed feeding on pine needles. If that is the case it is a small wonder that these animals pop up in the Northwest.

Please send comments, critiques, suggestions to reganjm@northwestwildlifeonline.com

Western Pond Turtle Release!

It’s our only native turtle and certainly worth saving. The specimen above was filmed at Northwest Trek a couple of years ago. As I understand the story it was turned in to the zoo from someone who found it outside of a convenience store. Lucky thing! More recently the Woodland Park Zoo has been raising several of these turtles from a collection of eggs. The little guys are ready to take on the the world now and a big release of these rare Testudines is about to take place. Click the link below for more on the story and why these native turtles have become so rare:

From King 5 News – Western Pond Turtle Release

Paradise Found!

Why do they refer to the big lodge at Mount Rainier as “Paradise?” My wife and I went hiking the other day and found a place that I think is much more deserving of the name – Owyhigh Lakes. It’s a fairly easy 3.5 mile hike to the top where you will be treated to some unexpectedly spectacular scenery. The sharp eyed observer might even be treated to the sight of a Western Toad along the way. And once you are there trot down to the lake and stare at the beautifully clear water while being surrounded by Cascades Frogs. Who could ask for more paradise than that?

Moth Mystery

I opened the door the other night to do my standard pre lights out check and clinging to the outside doorframe sat this enormous moth flashing its incredible wings. After a considerable amount of research and a lot of photo comparisons it seems to me that the moth in the above picture is a Cercopia Moth, Hyalophora cercopia, the largest moth in North America. Now that alone would be something worthy of a post to the website. But there’s a bit of mystery here. Every reference I consulted while trying to identify this insect maintains that the range of this moth is “East of the Rockies.” Well I assure you that my front porch is not east of the Rockies. Insect ranges, especially the winged variety, are notoriously variable so this should not be a huge surprise but the references I looked at both hard copy and online were very explicit about the Eastern range of the Cercopia. Perhaps we have a beautiful big new addition to our Northwest Lepidoptera population. If anyone out there has a better identification of this insect please let me know. An obviously interesting point about these kinds of visually captivating moths are the distinct “eyeball” designs on the wings used to ward off approaching predators. This particular moth displayed that behavior very clearly, spreading its wings to the fullest extent every time I got too close.

Kopachuk State Park – Sand Dollar Haven!

A wide view of the Kopachuk shoreline shows the expansive population of sand dollars is at the park. Most of these echinoderms are quite full of life yet easily accessible for close up viewing. Macro views of the sand dollar tube feet are amazing.

Washington State is home to a large number of beautiful and exceptionally interesting state parks. One of my favorites is Kopachuk near Gig Harbor. Comprised of 280 acres along Henderson Bay it is a great way to complete your day after cruising the shops in the city of Gig Harbor. Like most marine parks, however, low tide is the most fascinating time to visit. Kopachuk is a beautiful place with a lot of park benches and hiking trails at high tide but when that beach opens up at low tide it becomes a sand dollar spectacular! Huge areas of this sandy beach are densely studded with these amazing creatures. Our Northwest Sand Dollar, Dendraster excentricus, is an echinoderm related to sea urchins and sea stars. Unlike their echinoderm cousins, though, sand dollars have teeny tiny tube feet and move by “spinal” manipulation. Their little tube feet are used for feeding as the creature sifts through its sandy environment. Particle of food are swept up by the tube feet and aided by a uniquely named organ called Aristotle’s Lantern. The name comes to us thanks to the famous philosopher scientist himself who described the feeding organ of a sea urchin as looking like a “horn lantern.” It became known sometime later as Aristotle’s Lantern.

References:

Thanks to the Living Coast Discovery Center website for the bit about Aristotle’s Lantern

Kopachuk State Park website

Pacific Reef and Shore by Rick M. Harbo

Seashore Life of Puget Sound, the Straight of Georgia, and the San Juan Archipelago by Eugene N. Kozloff