Wildlife Of Afghanistan – Special Alert!

HERPETOZOA, a science journal of the Austrian Herpetological Society has just published “Additional Data to the Herpetofauna of Afghanistan” by zoologist Daniel Jablonski. I am proud to say that I am a co-author of this book along with several other contributors. In this manuscript Mr. Jablonski has done extensive research to correctly identify the reptiles and amphibians of Afghanistan. Although my book Reptiles and Amphibians of Afghanistan was one of the primary resources for the manuscript I got a few species incorrectly labeled based on the limited research I was able to conduct. Mr. Jablonski, however, is a trained zoological scientist with extensive expertise in the subject and has corrected these issues. You will also be treated to a number of additional photographs as well. Please go to the sites listed below and check out this wonderful contribution to the wildlife and people of Afghanistan:

ADDITIONAL DATA TO THE HERPETOFAUNA OF AFGHANISTAN        HERPETOZOA

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Book Review – For the Love of Insects by Thomas Eisner

Bug lover that I am I have read numerous books on insects but none have impressed me as much as “For Love of Insects” by Thomas Eisner. It is hard to exaggerate the admiration I have for this man and his work. All of the books I have read about these fascinating animals are normally loaded with excellent photographs and information about selected species detailing their range, habitat, and behaviors. And most of them are quite good, too. None, however, come as close to conveying the true complexity of insects as Thomas Eisner. Dr. Eisner does more than simply describe the arthropod he takes you into the internal organs of the animal, provides detailed drawings, pictures, and thanks to the thanks to the talents of his wife, Maria, some astonishing scanning electron microscopy. This entomology wizard does not stop there, of course. He articulates visually and in word how the insect employs it particular abilities. For example, we all know the peculiar behavior of the bombardier beetle and its explosive defense mechanism. But did you know that the compound blasted out is first held inside the beetle in separate chambers and then loaded into another chamber where a specific enzyme then initiates the chemical reaction necessary for the blast? This is just one example in this amazing work. In this book you will learn and see how some insects can accurately aim their spray in different directions, the chemical composition of it, the defensive mechanisms of millipedes, how microscopic fibers assist some insects, detailed examinations of how some avoid spider webs, and how some insects and spiders overcome these obstacles. And listen up insect lovers – in this book you’ll also learn experimental techniques, methods to capture, keep, and hold insects for observation, plus much, much more. Above all you will come away with an amazement for the anatomical and behavioral complexity of insects that you have never felt before. I cannot adequately express my admiration of the work. This wonderful Thomas Eisner passed away in 2011 but his book lives on as one of the best ever in its subject. For Love of Insectsis available on Amazon.

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Season of the Moose!

The female moose reaching for the branches happened to pop out very close to me as I was driving along a narrow country road. I ran into the big fellow sprouting new antlers while hiking. He let me get pretty close for some quality moose time and I got some good pictures. On another hike I ran into a moose that actually followed me back to my car. Good some good photos while walking backwards. Then one day as I was sitting back eating lunch in a remote part of Camp Richardson a proud mamma and her little ones trotted by right in front of me!

The biggest member of the deer family is common in Alaska and many other parts of North America throughout the year. These big animals do not hibernate and are pretty hard to miss if you run into one. The Land of the Midnight Sun is their primary home and I am fortunate enough to be able hike around that last frontier quite a bit. May and June mark the two months of the year when I run into them – and when they run into me – most often. On purpose or by accident every encounter is a thrill I’m thankful for.

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Nutria – Invasive Species Master

The nutrias in the above photographs were found in Oregon at the Ankenny Wildlife Reserve outside of Salem and highlight some distinctive features of the animal.

As is the case with many other “invasive” species this animal did not invade – it was captured and brought to America. The first of these rodents arrived in the Southeast sometime in the 1880s in order to profit from their fur. Several of them escaped and have since made their way throughout much of America. But wait! According to sources quoted in Walkers Mammals of the Worldthe same thing has occurred in Canada, England, France, Holland, Scandinavia, Germany, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Japan. Also commonly known as a Coypu this large rodent started out as a native species in South America. It has obviously adapted quite well to colder climates but Myocastor coyous has retained a strong affinity for aquatic environments. And that is where you are most likely to find them. Although I have observed several in Washington state I have found them to be extremely common in Oregon. Thanks to their diet these large rodents are usually considered pests. Most sources claim they are strictly vegetarians, which qualifies them as pests throughout most of their range, but other sources say that they also eat small invertebrates like snails. Smaller than a beaver but larger than a muskrat the nutria is often mistaken for both. The flattened tail of the beaver is an obvious difference. Muskrat tails are laterally compressed and their nose is of a more pointed shape than the blunt nutria nose.

References:

Walkers Mammals of the World, 6th Edition, Volume 2

Mammals of North America, Fiona A. Reid, Peterson Field Guides

Comments, critiques, corrections? reganjm@northwestwildlifeonline.com

Common Creatures – Uncommon Pictures

Sometimes you get lucky (if you’re persistent enough) and catch some very common animals in a unique pose or manner. This little lizard I found in Afghanistan seems to be saying, “Ain’t I pretty?” Then there was this odd colored deer found very close to my home. Sure, ducks catch fish, but how often do you see one with a frog in its mouth? Then there was this raven poking away at a coyote carcass out on Fort Lewis.

The Wide World of Porcupines

From left to right: African Crested Porcupine, Indian Crested Porcupine, North American Porcupine, crested porcupine quills.

Porcupines in appearance and behavior are interesting animals. Their morphology and behavior, like other members of the Rodentia order of mammals, has allowed them to adapt to a number of different environments around the world. According to Walker’s Mammals of the World (Ronald M. Nowak, 6thedition) there are 3 Genera and 11 different species of porcupines living in Africa, Europe, North America, The East Indies, and South Asia. Most of these have very distinctively shaped quills and/or body size and quite easy to tell apart. The crested porcupines of Afghanistan are most the likely Indian Crested Porcupine, Hystrix indica, but the African Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata, has recently been reported in the United Arab Emirates. If spotted in the UAE it is reasonable to believe they inhabit Saudi Arabia as well. And as with other animals of that continent such as hedge hogs and hyenas it is not out of the question that these African species may have made it into Afghanistan as well. I did not see any crested porcupines in Saudi Arabia but I spotted a number of them plus numerous track and traces in Afghanistan. The ones I saw were much longer than the North American porcupines,Erethizon doastum,and have very different quills. Instead of the needle like, barbed quills of the American porcupines, crested porcupines have sharply pointed, sturdy quills. The longer, thinner quills are found on the back and neck; shorter and stouter ones near the rear. If threatened a crested porcupine will rattle these quills and even back up into whatever is bothering the animal. These quills are sturdy enough to actually stab someone with. Crested porcupines are herbivores but I often found bones outside their burrows. They have probably collected these bones and munched on them for the calcium.

Another Idaho Wildlife Surprise

Hiking about the huge hills and plains along the Boise River valley you run into unexpectedly beautiful sights like these colorful little rocky streams. Then while looking across the valley I noticed some tiny specs that seemed to be moving. Was that the animal I have wanted to photograph for so long? My long lens told me it was! So I crossed the valley, climbed up the cliff on the other side, got as close to the Pronghorns as I could, and started filming. Along the way I got this nice shot of an American Kestrel as well.

To the east of Boise, Idaho the landscape changes dramatically into an enormous expanse of huge treeless hills, rocky cliffs, valleys, and plateaus. It is a wonderful place for hiking and an especially intriguing location for wildlife photography. When the weather is agreeable the intrepid explorer is liable to find everything from lizards to mountain lions. My time there in this chilly middle of January did not turn up any reptiles but I did manage to photograph one of the most beautiful creatures of the country – the American Pronghorn “Antelope.” Despite its oft used common name and scientific name, the pronghorn is not an antelope. And despite its goat like appearance it’s not a goat either. The Pronghorn is a unique species unto itself within the great hoofed group of mammals. Ranging from southern Canada and all the way into Mexico they are often seen in remote parts of the country grazing in the open areas they prefer. Don’t expect to get close up for observation, however. Pronghorns are extremely alert and exceptionally fast runners – up to 70 mph according to some sources. The ones I found in the photos above consistently remained about a quarter of a mile away from me. Good thing I had my long lens out.

Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium

Come visit this wonderful zoological park. Pictured above is a very small sample of the animals and exhibits. There are daily, very informative keeper talks at each exhibit, a Wildlife Wonders Theater, a nice little restaurant and gift shop plus a petting zoo and special place for children that includes small animal species and a playground. All of this right next to a state park on the shoreline of Puget Sound. A truly fantastic way to spend the day. And don’t worry about the weather – there are plenty of indoor exhibits as well.

Do Wasps Like Hummingbirds?

If you’re like me and have a hummingbird feeder (or three) you will more than likely notice a wasp or two buzzing around it annoying the hummers. What you are seeing is probably either a Paper Wasp or a Bald-faced Hornet. Common throughout America the Paper Wasp gets its name due to its papery appearing nest; Bald faced Hornets due to their distinct white facial markings. That name, however, is a bit deceptive as this “hornet” actually a member of the yellow jacket wasp family and not a real hornet. At one to two inches long, hornets are larger than wasps. Paper wasps of the genus Polistes comes to us in several species, the most common of which is the one we see quite often in the Northwest, Polistes fuscatus. Although a bit larger than Bald-face Hornets, Paper Wasps have a reputation for being fairly mild mannered compared to their other wasp cousins, but they can be irritated and it is no fun to be stung by one so don’t push your luck. Paper Wasp nests are often found up under the eves of homes or some other overhanging shelter. Their nests are not very large and is actually not as “papery” as the big rounded ones of the Bald-faced Hornet.  Bald-faced Hornets prefer trees but they are not adverse to building a home under your eves and there is no mistaking one of those hanging under your roof. This smaller Paper Wasp nest holds an advantage for us human observers because you can easily look inside and see what’s going on thanks to its open to the public construction; and these wasps are normally laid back enough to let you do it. Be careful trying that with a Bald-faced Hornet. Their nests are distinctly different but both species have very similar feeding habits. Primarily to feed their larvae Paper Wasps and Bald-faced Hornets hunt other insects for food. In this respect they may very well be considered your partners in pest control. Adults have a taste for flower nectar and fruit juices, however, hence their attraction to your hummingbird feeder. By the way, are those nests really made of paper? Actually yes. It is made of wood pulp mixed with the saliva of the wasp.

References:

The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders by Lorus and Margery Milne, 1980

National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and Spiders of North America by Arthur V. Evans, 2008

Garden Insects of North America by Whitney Cranshaw, 2004

Bugs of Washington and Oregon by John Acorn, 2001

The three hummingbird feeders hanging over my back deck.

Beautiful Wood Ducks and the Morison Knudsen Nature Center

For a long time I have been trying to get a good photograph of one of the most colorful avians in America – the Wood Duck, Aix sponsa. Although they are common in the Northwest I had been looking in all wrong places. Wood Ducks do not like big open stretches of water; they prefer small quiet ponds in secluded areas and near trees where they can lay and develop their eggs. Their nests may be self made in some kind of natural tree formation or in something like a hole previously pounded out by a woodpecker, and their ducklings are famous for jumping out of these high altitude nests just 24 hours after hatching. With that in mind you would not expect to find this animal close to the middle of a populated city. But that is exactly where I found them – in the city limits of Boise, Idaho at the Morison Knudsen Nature Center. Run by the Idaho Fish and Game Department, and a lot of very dedicated volunteers, the MK Nature Center (as is usually referred to) is a very pleasant surprise as close as is to a population center. Mule deer and squirrels were very much in abundance on the day I visited but this small park is home to a number of other unique animals. Beavers have built an impressive structure that borders the home of the wood ducks; red foxes and mink have also been observed there. The pond homing the wood ducks is also inhabited by an enormous, prehistoric looking white sturgeon. Another unique feature of the MK Park is the presence of what I’ll call “natural stream aquariums.” Several streams run through the park and are of course wonderful to look at. The MK folks, however, have taken this one step further and somehow constructed a glass sided viewing attraction where a visitor can see inside the stream just as you would a home aquarium. At just 4.6 acres with a nice visitor center and well marked hard ball paths it is an ideal family outing. Don’t expect a gigantic moose and bear, wilderness adventure. That is not the MK Center. Easy to get to and easy to stroll around in it is a perfect afternoon outing where a lot of wildlife can be observed without a lot of effort. The next time you find yourself rolling around Boise I highly recommend a visit to this charming little park.